Shrinking water resources owing to over exploitation of ground water in Punjab threatens the maintenance of agricultural productivity. As a result, the water table is falling in 90% area of the state. Most of this area falls in the Central part of the state. With the inception of Green revolution in the Sixties, the water table started declining and the area having water table below 30 feet. depth has increased from 3% in 1973 to 90% in 2004. During 1993-2003, the average fall of water table in the Central Punjab was 50cm per annum. However, in some of the areas, the fall of water table is even more than 80- 100 cm per annum. Out of 141 blocks of the state more that 100 blocks are over exploited. In the Central part, out of 70 blocks, the water table in 40 blocks has gone down below 50 feet depth and in these blocks, submersible pumps are being installed to replace centrifugal pumps. It is projected that by 2023 in Central Punjab, the water table depth will be below 70 feet in 66% area, below 100 feet in 34% area and below 130 feet in 7% area. Correspondingly in each district, the percent area below 70 feet depth will be 100% in Moga & Sangrur, 80 % in Patiala, 70 % in Ludhiana, 60% in Kapurthala & Jalandhar.
To arrest this dangerous trend of ground water exploitation, there is an urgent need to conserve irrigation water through various on-farm water conservation practices. Land Leveling through Laser Leveler is one such proven technology that is highly useful in conservation of irrigation water.